Category: European Data Protection

EDPB: 65000 Data Breach Notifications

20. May 2019

The European Data Protection Board (EDPB) reports on the first nine month under the GDPR.

Besides other findings of the report, the EDPB states that the national supervisory authorities received in total 206.326 complaints, 64.484 data breach notifications, 94.622 GDPR-related complaints from data subjects and 47.020 other.

At the time of the EDPB report 52% of the cases were already closed, 47% ongoing and 1% of the fined companies appealed against the decision of the supervisory authority.

Fines totalling € 55.955.871 were awarded for the detected violations by 11 authorities. With this high sum, however, it must be noted that € 50 million was imposed on Google alone.

 

German Court’s Decision on the Right of Access

9. April 2019

Just recently, a German Labour Court (LAG Baden-Württemberg) has decided on the extent of Article 15 of the European General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) with regard to the information that is supposed to be handed out to the data subject in case such a claim is made.

The decision literally reflects the wording of Art. 15 (1) GDPR which, amongst other things, requires information on

  • the purposes of data processing,
  • the categories of personal data concerned,
  • the recipients or categories of recipient to whom the personal data have been or will be disclosed
  • where possible, the envisaged period for which the personal data will be stored, or, if not possible, the criteria used to determine that period,
  • where the personal data are not collected from the data subject, any available information as to their source.

In contrast to the previous views of the local data protection authorities, which – in the context of information about recipients of personal data – deem sufficient that the data controller discloses recipient categories, the LAG Baden-Württemberg also obliged the data controller to provide the data subject with information about each individual recipient.

In addition, the LAG Baden-Württemberg ordered the data controller to make available to the data subject a copy of all his personal performance data. However, the court did not comment on the extent of copies that are to be made. It is therefore questionable whether, in addition to information from the systems used in the company, copies of all e-mails containing personal data of the person concerned must also be made available to the data subject.

Since the court has admitted the appeal to the Federal Labour Court (BAG) regarding this issue, it remains to be seen whether such an approach will still be valid after a Federal Labour Court decision.

Advocate General: No Valid Cookie Consent When Checkbox Is Pre-ticked

25. March 2019

On 21 of March Maciej Szpunar, Advocate General of the European Court of Justice, delivered his Opinion in the case of Planet24 GmbH against Bundesverband Verbraucherzentralen und Vebraucherverbände – Verbaucherzentrale Bundesverband e.V. (Federal Association of Consumer Organisations). In the Opinion, Szpunar explains how to obtain valid consent for the use of cookies.

In the case in question, Planet24 GmbH has organised a lottery campaign on the internet. When registering to participate in the action lottery, two checkboxes appeared. The first checkbox, which did not contain a pre-selected tick, concerned permission for sponsors and cooperation partners to contact the participant in order to inform him of their offers. The second checkbox, which was already ticked off, concerned the consent to the setting of cookies, which evaluate the user’s surfing and usage behaviour.

The Federal Association held that the clauses used infringed german law, in particular Article 307 of the BGB, Article 7(2), point 2, of the UWG and Article 12 et seq. of the TMG and filed a lawsuit in 2014 after an unsuccessful warning.

In the course of the instances, the case ended up at the German Federal Supreme Court in 2017. The German Federal Court considers that the success of the case depends on the interpretation of Articles 5(3) and 2(f) of Directive 2002/58, read in conjunction with Article 2(h) of Directive 95/46, and of Article 6(1)(a) of Regulation 2016/679. For that reason, it asked the European Court of Justice the following questions for a preliminary ruling:

(1) Does consent given on the basis of a pre-ticked box meet the requirements for valid consent under the ePrivacy Directive, the EU Data Protection Directive and the EU General Data Protection Regulation (the GDPR)?

(2) What information does the service provider have to provide to the user and does this include the duration of the use of cookies and whether third parties have access to the cookies?

According to the Advocate General, there is no valid consent if the checkbox is already ticked. In such case, the user must remove the tick, i.e. become active if he/she does not agree to the use of cookies. However, this would contradict the requirement of an active act of consent by the user. It is necessary for the user to explicitly consent to the use of cookies. Therefore, it is also not sufficient if one checkbox is used to deal with both the use of cookies and participation in the action lottery. Consent must be given separately. Otherwise the user is not in the position to freely give a separate consent.

In addition, Szpunar explains that the user must be provided with clear and comprehensive information that enables the user to easily assess the consequences of his consent. This requires that the information provided is unambiguous and cannot be interpreted. For this purpose, the information must contain details such as the duration of the operation of cookies, as well as whether third parties have access to the cookies.

EDPB publishes information note on data transfer in the event of a no-deal Brexit

25. February 2019

The European Data Protection Board has published an information note to explain data transfer to organisations and facilitate preparation in the event that no agreement is reached between the EEA and the UK. In case of a no-deal Brexit, the UK becomes a third country for which – as things stand at present – no adequacy decision exists.

EDPB recommends that organisations transferring data to the UK carry out the following five preparation steps:

• Identify what processing activities will imply a personal data transfer to the UK
• Determine the appropriate data transfer instrument for your situation
• Implement the chosen data transfer instrument to be ready for 30 March 2019
• Indicate in your internal documentation that transfers will be made to the UK
• Update your privacy notice accordingly to inform individuals

In addition, EDPB explains which instruments can be used to transfer data to the UK:
– Standard or ad hoc Data Protection Clauses approved by the European Commission can be used.
– Binding Corporate Rules for data processing can be defined.
– A code of conduct or certification mechanism can be established.

Derogations are possible in the cases mentioned by article 49 GDPR. However, they are interpreted very restrictively and mainly relate to processing activities that are occasional and non-repetitive. Further explanations on available derogations and how to apply them can be found in the EDPB Guidelines on Article 49 of GDPR.

The French data protection authority CNIL has published an FAQ based on the information note of the EDPB, explaining the consequences of a no-deal Brexit for the data transfer to the UK and which preparations should be made.

The European Data Protection Board presents Work Program for 2019/2020

14. February 2019

On February 12, 2019 the European Data Protection Board (EDPB) released on their website a document containing a two-year Work Program.

The EDPB acts as an independent European body and is established by the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). The board is formed of representatives of the national EU and EEA EFTA data protection supervisory authorities, and the European Data Protection Supervisor (EDPS).

The tasks of the EDPB are to issue guidelines on the interpretation of key ideas of the GDPR as well as the ruling by binding decisions on disputes regarding cross-border processing activities. Its objective is to ensure a consistent application of EU rules to avoid the same case potentially being dealt with differently across various jurisdictions. It promotes cooperation between EEA EFTA and the EU data protection supervisory authorities.

The EDPB work program is based on the needs identified by the members as priority for individuals, stakeholders, as well as the EU legislator- planned activities. It contains Guidelines, Consistency opinions, other types of activities, recurrent activities and possible topics.

Furthermore, the EDPB released an information note about data transfers if a no-deal Brexit occurs. As discussed earlier, in this case the UK will become a so-called “third country” for EU member countries beginning from March 30. According to the UK Government, the transfer of data from the UK to the EEA will remain unaffected, permitting personal data to flow freely in the future.

Data Protection Day

28. January 2019

On the occassion of this year’s Data Protection Day, which was launched in 2006 by the Council of Europe, the Commission has issued the following statement :

“This year Data Protection Day comes eight months after the entry into application of the General Data Protection Regulation on 25 May 2018. We are proud to have the strongest and most modern data protection rules in the world, which are becoming a global standard.”

On January 28th in 2006, the Council of Europe’s data protection convention, known as “Convention 108”, was opened to signature. Data Protection Day is now celebrated globally and is called Privacy Day outside of Europe.

More than 50 countries around the world have already signed up to the convention, which sets out key principles in the area of personal data protection.

The convention has been ratified by the 47 Council of Europe member states and Mauritius, Senegal, Uruguay and Tunisia. Other countries such as Argentina, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Mexico and Morocco have been invited to accede. Many more participate as Observers States in the work of the Committee of the Convention (Australia, Canada, Chile, Ghana, Indonesia, Israel, Japan, Korea, New-Zealand, United States of America).

Governments, parliaments, national data protection bodies and other actors carry out activities on this day to raise awareness about the rights to personal data protection and privacy. These may include campaigns targeting the general public, educational projects for teachers and students, open doors at data protection agencies and conferences.

 

The Dutch DPA (Autoriteit Persoonsgevens) investigates several Data Processing Agreements

23. January 2019

Since the EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) entered into force on May 25, 2018, the Dutch DPA regularly reviews whether organizations comply with data protection regulations. For example, the DPA previously investigated organizations (inter alia hospitals, banks, insurers) regarding their data protection officers and/or whether they keep a register of processing activities.

The Dutch Data Protection Authortiy, the so called Autoriteit Persoonsgevens, announced last week on its website that it had asked 30 private organizations to provide their Data Processing Agreements in use. The organizations in question mainly operate in the field of energy, media and trade.

Art. 28 GDPR states that a data controller must have a data processing agreement (DPA) with a data processor when the ladder is carrying out the data processing on behalf of the controller. This is for example the case when an organization outsources IT facilities. The controller remains responsible for the protection of the personal data and is only allowed to engage processors which can offer sufficient guarantees to ensure those requirements. Especially, the agreement must specify the type and categories of data that will be processed and the duration as well as the nature and purpose of the processing.

Political parties will be sanctioned for data breaches

22. January 2019

On Wednesday, 16th January 2019, EU Parliament and member state negotiators agreed that parties or political foundations can be sanctioned for data protection breaches during election campaigns. This regulation is intended to prevent any influence on the forthcoming European elections in May. It was decided that in such cases affected institutions would have to pay up to five percent of their annual budget in future.

One of the reasons for the new regulation was the data scandal surrounding Facebook and Cambridge Analytica. During the US election campaign, Facebook gained unauthorized access to the data of millions of its users. With this data, Cambridge Analytica is said to have tried to prevent potential Clinton supporters from voting and to mobilise Trump voters by means of advertising and contributions (we reported).

In future, data protection violations that are deliberately accepted in order to influence the outcome of European elections will be severely sanctioned. National supervisory authorities are to decide whether a party has violated the regulation. The Authority for European Political Parties and European Political Foundations must then review the decision and, if necessary, impose the appropriate sanction. Moreover, those found to be in breach could not apply for funds from the general budget of the European Union in the year in which the fine is imposed.

The text adopted on Wednesday still has to be formally adopted by Parliament and the Council of Member States.

Brexit: Impact on data protection after “May’s deal” has been rejected

18. January 2019

Prime Minister Theresa May’s draft withdrawal agreement to regulate Brexit was rejected by a clear majority of parliamentarians on 15th January. The draft withdrawal agreement has been agreed in November 2018 by the United Kingdom (UK) and the European Union (EU) – we reported: Brexit: Draft withdrawal agreement – GDPR remains applicable for foreseeable future – containing a transition period of 21-months in order to facilitate business sectors in their planning. Because of the recent rejection of the withdrawal agreement by the British Parliament, the scenario of the UK disorderly leaving the EU has now become quite likely. Among various economic and EU law issues, Brexit has also a concrete impact on data protection.

In case of a Brexit without corresponding transitional rules, the UK would be regarded as a third country under the General Data Protection Regulation of the EU (GDPR) as of 29th March 2019. This was also confirmed by Prof. Dr. Dieter Kugelmann, the State Data Protection Officer of Rheinland-Pfalz: “The fact is that the United Kingdom will become a “third country” within the meaning of the GDPR after leaving the EU.” Thus, an adaquacy decision would be required to transfer personal data of EU citizens or from the EU to the UK in the absence of any other mechanisms ensuring an adequate level of data protection according to Art. 44 ff. GDPR.

Since many companies currently transfer customer or employee data to the UK as well as a lot of data centres of service providers are located there, the Brexit will cause a need for adaption in terms of data protection matters. After the Brexit these Companies must ensure that there is an adequate legal basis for the relevant data transfers to the UK. Furthermore, according to Art. 13, 14 GDPR, the data subjects must be informed regarding the transfer of personal data outside the EU/EEA. All privacy policies on websites, privacy notices to employees etc. therefore would have to be adjusted. In the event of a data subject’s request for information, Art. 15 GDPR stipulates that the data subject must be informed about the transfer of his/her personal data to a third country. When personal data are transferred to the UK deemed as a third country, companies would eventually have to adjust their records of processing activities pursuant to Art. 30 GDPR.

It is recommended that in particular those companies transferring a lot of personal data to the UK at least are aware of these potentially required adaptations in order to further ensure compliance with EU data protection laws. As the GDPR, principally does not privilege any group of companies, the aforementioned recommendation also apply to data flows within such groups.

Uber to pay another fine for 2016 data breach

27. December 2018

Uber’s major data breach of 2016 still has consequences as it has also been addressed by the French Data Protection Authority “CNIL”.

As reported in November 2017 and September 2018, the company had tried to hide that personal data of 50 million Uber customers had been stolen and chose to pay the hackers instead of disclosing the incident to the public.

1,4 million French customers were affected as well which is why the CNIL has now fined Uber 400K Euros (next to the settlement with the US authorities amounting to $148 Million).

The CNIL came to find out that the breach could have been avoided by implementing certain basic security measures such as stronger authentication.

Great Britain and the Netherlands have also already imposed a fine totalling €1 million.

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