Category: EU

CNIL announces focus for Control Procedures in 2020

16. March 2020

The french Commission Nationale de l’Informatique et des Libertés (CNIL) has announced their focus in regards to the Control Procedures they intend to take in 2020.

Out of 300 Control Procedures done in one year, in 2020 at least 50 of those are going to be focused on three prioritized themes: health data security, geolocation and cookies compliance. The CNIL decided on prioritizing these areas because of the high relevance all of them have on the daily life of the french citizens.

Especially in regards to health data because of the sensitive nature of the data collected, as well as geological data, due to the never ending new solutions to transportation or enhancements to daily life, it is important to keep an eye on the scope of the data processing and the private sphere which is affected.

Regarding cookies and other tracers, CNIL continues to underline the importance in regards to profiled advertisement. On top of the planned Control Procedures, the CNIL intends to publish a recommendation in the spring of 2020 with regards to cookies. It will keep an eye on the implementation of the recommendation, and give companies a 6 months period to adjust and implement them.

The CNIL also stated that in addition they will continue to work together with other national Data Protection Authorities, in order to ensure the regulation of transnational data processing.

Greek Data Protection Authority releases Guidance on Cookies

On 25 February 2020, the Hellenic Data Protection Authority (DPA) published a guidance on Cookies and other tracking tools. Previously, the Authority had found that Greek websites and service providers have been largely failing to comply with the rules on the use of Cookies and other trackers set out by the ePrivacy Directive and the GDPR, and reaffirmed by the European Court of Justice’s ruling on Planet 49.

The guidance states that it will be relevant to HTTP/S Cookies, Flash Cookies, local storage applying to HTML 5, device fingerprinting, OS identifiers, and material identifiers.

The Greek DPA reiterated that, generally, providers are obliged to obtain the user’s consent if they are using any tracking tools – irrespective of whether the processing of personal data is taking place. It also outlined that technically necessary trackers are exempt from the obligation to consent. Furthermore, the guidance goes into detail on how information and consent can be made available on websites specifically.

Lastly, the Authority has given Greek website providers a grace period of two months to implement the provisions of this guidance and thereby become compliant with the European rules on tracking tools.

EDPB publishes GDPR Implementation Review

The European Data Protection Board (EDPB) released a review dated from February 18th, in a contribution to the evaluation of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which has reached its 20th month of being in effect.

Overall, the EDPB stated that it has a positive view of the implementation of the legislation in the different European Countries over the past 20 months. Furthermore, it deems a revision of the legislative text as likely, but not yet necessary in the near future.

The EDPB praised the Data Protection Authorities and their work up til now, saying it hopes that the cooperation between them will create a common data protection culture and consistent monitoring practices. But the report also mentioned that Supervisory Authorities in the countries face restrictions due to different national procedures and practices, which can hinder the cooperation. Furthermore, the EDPB sees a need to increase the funding for Supervisory Authorities to improve and support their duties.

On another note, the EDPB has acknowledged the challenges of implementation for Small to Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs). It says it is aware of these challenges, and works together with Supervisory Authorities to facilitate the supporting tools they have put out in order to support SMEs.

Lastly, it raised concerns about the timeframe of the new ePrivacy Regulation, and urged lawmakers to bundle their focus and efforts to carry on with its development.

German Robert-Koch-Institute discusses mobile phone tracking to slow down the spreading of the Coronavirus

9. March 2020

According to a news report by the German newspaper “Der Tagesspiegel”, a small group of scientists at the Robert-Koch-Institute (RKI) and other institutions are currently discussing the evaluation and matching of movement data from mobile phones to detect people infected with the Coronavirus (COVID-19).

The scientists, who are trying to slow down the spreading of the disease, complain about the problem of the time-consuming and vague questionings of infected people on who they came in contact with. The evaluation and matching of mobile phone data may be more accurate and could speed up the process of identifying infected people, which could be essential for saving lives.

In a comment, the German Federal Commissioner for Data Protection Ulrich Kelber expressed that this procedure may cause large data protection issues, especially with regards to having a legal basis for processing and the proportionality of processing according to the GDPR.

Belgian DPA releases Direct Marketing Recommendation

4. March 2020

On February 10, 2020, Belgium’s Data Protection Authority (the Belgian DPA) has released their first recommendation of 2020 in relation to data processing activities for direct marketing purposes.

In the recommendation the Belgian DPA addressed issues and action proposals in regards to the handling of direct marketing and the personal data which is used in the process. It emphasized the importance of direct marketing subjects in the upcoming years, and stated that the DPA will have a special priority in regards to issues on the matter.

In particular, the recommendation elaborates on the following points, in order to help controllers navigate through the different processes:

  • The processing purposes must be specific and detailed. A simple mention of “marketing purposes” is not deemed sufficient in light of Art. 13 GDPR.
  • It is important to guarantee data minimization, as the profiling that accompanies direct marketing purposes calls for a careful handling of personal data.
  • The right to object does not only affect the direct marketing activities, but also the profiling which takes places through them. Furthermore, a simple “Unsubscribe” button at the end of a marketing E-Mail is not sufficient to withdraw consent, it is rather recommended to give the data subject the opportunity to a granular selection of which direct marketing activities they object to.
  • Consent cannot be given singularly for all channels of direct marketing. A declaration for each channel has to be obtained to ensure specification towards content and means used for direct marketing.

The Belgian DPA also stated that there are direct marketing activities which require special attention in the future, namely purchasing, renting and enriching personal data, e.g. via data brokers. In such cases, it is necessary to directly provide appropriate information to the data subject in regards to the handling of their data.

Further topics have been brought forth in the recommendation, which overall represents a thorough proposal on the handling of direct marketing activities for controller entities.

EDPS publishes opinion on future EU-UK partnership

3. March 2020

On 24 February 2020, the European Data Protection Supervisor (EDPS) published an opinion on the opening of negotiations for the future partnership between the EU and the UK with regards to personal data protection.

In his opinion, the EDPS points out the importance of commitments to fully respect fundamental rights in the future envisaged comprehensive partnership. Especially with regards to the protection of personal data, the partnership shall uphold the high protection level of the EU’s personal data rules.

With respect to the transfer of personal data, the EDPS further expresses support for the EU Commission’s recommendation to work towards the adoption of adequacy decisions for the UK if the relevant conditions are met. However, the Commission must ensure that the UK is not lowering its data protection standard below the EU standard after the Brexit transition period. Lastly, the EDPS recommends the EU Institutions to also prepare for a potential scenario in which no adequacy decisions exist by the end of the transition period on 31 December 2020.

The Government of India plans one of the largest Facial Recognition Systems in the World

14. February 2020

The Indian Government released a Request for Proposal to bidder companies to procure a national Automated Facial Recognition System (AFRS). AFRS companies had time to submit their proposals until the end of January 2020. The plans for an AFRS in India are a new political development amidst the intention to pass the first national Data Protection Bill in Parliament.

The new system is supposed to integrate image databases of public authorities centrally as well as incorporate photographs from newspapers, raids, mugshots and sketches. The recordings from surveillance cameras, public or private video feeds shall then be compared to the centralised databases and help identify criminals, missing persons and dead bodies.

Human rights and privacy groups are pointing to various risks that may come with implementing nationwide AFRS in India, including violations of privacy, arbitrariness, mis-identifications, discriminatory profiling, a lack of technical safeguards, and even creating an Orwellian 1984 dystopia through mass surveillance.

However, many people in India are receiving the news about the plans of the Government with acceptance and approval. They hope that the AFRS will lead to better law enforcement and more security in their everyday lives, as India has a comparably high crime rate and only 144 police officers for every 100.000 citizens, compared to 318 per 100.000 citizens in the EU.

Irish Data Protection Authority investigates Google’s processing of location data

6. February 2020

The irish data protection authorty (namely The Data Protection Commission (DPC)) is, in its role as Lead Supervisory Authority, responsible for Google within the European Union.

The DPC startet a formal investigation into Google’s practices to track its user’s location and the transparency surrounding that processing.

Following a number of complaints by serveral national consumer groups all across the EU, the investigation was initiated by the DPC.  Consumer organisations argue that the consent to “share” users’ location data was not freely given and consumers were tricked into accepting privacy-intrusive settings. Such practices are not compliant with the EU’s data protection law GDPR.

The irish data protection authority will now have to establish, whether Google has a valid legal basis for processing the location data of its users and whether it meets its obligations as a data controller with regard to transparency.

The investigation will add further pressure to Google. Google is facing a handful of investigations in Europe. The DPC has already opened an investigation into how Google handles data for advertising. That investigation is still ongoing. If Google is found not complying with the GDPR, the company could be forced to change its business model.

However, there are still a number of steps before the Irish DPC makes a decision including the opportunity for Google to reply.

A short review of the Polish DPA’s enforcement of the GDPR

10. January 2020

To date, the Polish Data Protection Authority (DPA) have issued 134 decisions and imposed GDPR fines in 5 cases. In 4 cases, the Polish DPA fined private companies and in one case, it fined a public institution.

The fines for the companies ranged from 13.000€ to 645.000€. Reasons for the fines were failures in protecting personal data on websites resulting in the unauthorised access of personal data, inadequate technical and organisational measures, and an insufficient fulfilment of information obligations according to Art. 14 GDPR.

It is also noteworthy that the Polish DPA has imposed a 9.350€ fine on the Mayor of a Polish small town. Under Art. 83 (7) GDPR, each member state of the EU may lay down rules on whether and to what extent administrative fines may be imposed on public authorities. The Polish legislators decided that non-compliant public authorities may receive a GDPR fine of up to 23.475€.

The Mayor received the GDPR fine since he failed to conclude a data processing agreement with the entities to which he transferred data in violation of Art. 28 (3) GDPR. Moreover, the Mayor violated the principle of storage limitation, the principles of integrity and confidentiality, the principle of accountability and furthermore kept an incomplete record of processing activities.

Recently, the Polish DPA also published the EU Project T4DATA’s Handbook for Data Protection Officers (DPO) in order to help define a DPO’s role, their competencies and main responsibilities.

More US States are pushing on with new Privacy Legislation

3. January 2020

The California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) came into effect on January 1, 2020 and will be the first step in the United States in regulating data privacy on the Internet. Currently, the US does not have a federal-level general consumer data privacy law that is comparable to that of the privacy laws in EU countries or even the supranational European GDPR.

But now, several other US States have taken inspiration from the CCPA and are in the process of bringing forth their own state legislation on consumer privacy protections on the Internet, including

  • The Massachusetts Data Privacy Law “S-120“,
  • The New York Privacy Act “S5642“,
  • The Hawaii Consumer Privacy Protection Act “SB 418“,
  • The Maryland Online Consumer Protection Act “SB 613“, and
  • The North Dakota Bill “HB 1485“.

Like the CCPA, most of these new privacy laws have a broad definition of the term “Personal Information” and are aimed at protecting consumer data by strenghtening consumer rights.

However, the various law proposals differ in the scope of the consumer rights. All of them grant consumers the ‘right to access’ their data held by businesses. There will also be a ‘right to delete’ in most of these states, but only some give consumers a private ‘right of action’ for violations.

There are other differences with regards to the businesses that will be covered by the privacy laws. In some states, the proposed laws will apply to all businesses, while in other states the laws will only apply to businesses with yearly revenues of over 10 or 25 Million US-Dollars.

As more US states are beginning to introduce privacy laws, there is an increasing possiblity of a federal US privacy law in the near future. Proposals from several members of Congress already exist (Congresswomen Eshoo and Lofgren’s Proposal and Senators Cantwell/Schatz/Klobuchar/Markey’s Proposal and Senator Wicker’s Proposal).

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